Dead But Dreaming:
The Great Old Ones of Lovecraftian Legend Reinterpreted as Sumerian/Atlantean Kings
part 1 | part2

by, Tracy R. Twyman

The Secret Doctrine given to the elite castes of mankind by the Nephilim or the "Annunaki", the gods of ancient Sumeria and Atlantis, has been passed down through the ages, not only to the Masons, Templars, Rosicrucians, and other fraternal orders which perpetuate the tradition, but also to the teenage geeks and D & D "gamers" of today via the Lovecraft/Necronomicon lore, which has given birth to a cornucopia of role-playing and computer games, in much the same way that Monty Python and the Society for Creative Anachronism have kept alive the Grail myth for these same teenagers. The fact that S.C.A.'s membership correlates strongly with participation in Lovecraftian role-playing games is no coincidence, for the "demons" of the "Cthulhu Mythos" as its called, are the same as the gods of Ancient Sumer, and the fallen angels who spawned the Grail family. The "Grail Blood" and the "bloodline of the Great Old Ones" are the same thing. They are also the same as the sea-monsters such as Leviathan and Dagon, the "Lords of the Deep" and gods of the "Underworld" or Abyss recorded in the legends of every ancient culture.

It takes only a cursory examination of H.P. Lovecraft's most quintessential work, "The Call of Cthulhu" to see that the entire system of mythology upon which his story is based comes from the Book of Enoch, the Nephilim story in Genesis, and the universal tale of the fall of Atlantis. In this story, Lovecraft's main character finds a strange carved idol in his grand-uncle's affects, its appearance described as that of, "an octopus, a dragon, and a human caricature... scaly body, rudimentary wings." The discovery of this idol leads to his investigation and uncovering of a sinister, age-old "Cult of Cthulhu (the name of the idol)", which worshipped the creature represented by the idol, and the entire race of demons from which he had come. The description of the idol bears a striking resemblance to the descriptions of the Sumerian god-king Enki, also known as Dagon or Oannes, a half-human, half-fish combination who was known as the "Lord of the Flood", and was said to rise out of the sea every day to teach his secret knowledge to those who followed him. He is mentioned in Samuel, Chapter 5, when the Philistines capture the Ark of the Covenant and place it in the Temple of Dagon. Two nights later, "Dagon was fallen upon is face to the ground before the Ark of the Lord; and the head of Dagon and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold; only the stump of Dagon was left to him." It is this character upon which Satan or Lucifer is based, but the physical description attributed to him applied to an entire race of "gods", or as they were described in the Bible, Nephilim, or Fallen Angels, the "Great Old Ones", as Lovecraft calls them. The Watchers, "those who were cast down", are described in the Book of Enoch literally as stars that descended to Earth. Cthulhu is also described with wings, another attribute of the Nephilim, who, according to our research, were real flesh-and-blood beings, and ruled as the antediluvian kings of the ancient world over a global kingdom whose capitol was Atlantis. As they were an expert sea-faring people - navigators - they were also depicted as sea gods, half-man, half-fish, and with the horns of a goat. The fact that the city which Lovecraft's "Great Old Ones" ruled over was Atlantis is quite clear, as the city, called "R'lyeh" in the story, is covered with what Lovecraft describes as "Cyclopean" architecture, the same word used by Ignatius Donnelly to describe the architecture of Atlantis. Lovecraft's descriptions paint a picture of multi-dimensional, non-Euclidean angles, as if they existed in a space-time different than ours, perhaps in an "otherworld" somewhere in between the planes of heaven and earth. They are described as grand and mighty creatures, with a moral creed similar to that of Aleister Crowley's "Do What Thou Wilt", and they trounced on all those weaker than them, bringing destruction to the Earth, devouring every living thing. This is exactly the behavior that is ascribed to the sons of the Watchers, or Nephilim, the Giants who wrought havoc upon the World, oppressed and devoured all of the gods' living creation to feed their own voracious appetites. Because of the pride and destructive behavior of the Great Old Ones, their empire city, R'lyeh, sank beneath the ocean in some punishment by natural disaster mercifully imposed by God. This is exactly what is said to have happened to the island kingdom of Atlantis, which also sank because of the pride of its inhabitants. It is also what is said about the Nephilim in the Bible, who, along with their offspring, are destroyed by god via the Flood of Noah. The fact that the Great Old Ones are lead by a being called "Cthulhu" is significant, for "Thule" is another name for Atlantis, and the Nazis believed that it was literally located inside the Earth, in the "Underworld", in which was located the city of "Agartha" or "Agade", the Abode of the Gods. The Hollow Earth, or Underworld seems to be the place where R'lyeh ultimately sank to, where Cthulhu and the rest of the Great Old Ones now remain, sleeping in their watery tomb, "Dead but dreaming", as Lovecraft now describes it, waiting for the day when they will awaken, their city rise from the waves, and their empire shall once again hold dominion over the whole earth. This echoes the story of the Watchers or the Nephilim, who are imprisoned by God inside the Earth, or "the Abyss", which was a word used by the Ancients to describe the ocean. The theme of the subterranean Lord, imprisoned in the Underworld, who will one day awaken from his death-like slumber to reclaim his kingdom is, as we have established in other articles, a very common archetype, most notable in the form of Kronos, called "The Forgotten Father" and "The Hidden One", the leader of the Titans, and the king of Atlantis, whose kingdom was cast down into the Abyss, and who was imprisoned therein, thereafter known as the Dark Lord of the Underworld. And there is clearly an etymological connection between "Titan" and "Teitan", otherwise spelled "Satan." The Titans, or Satans, and the Nephilim are clearly the same as the Great Old Ones, and Kronos, otherwise known as Saturn, or Satan, is clearly the same as Cthulhu. As we have established, he is also synonymous with Dagon or Oannes, who is referred to in the Bible as Leviathan, the beast who will rise from the sea at the Apocalypse. The return of Cthulhu, the Great Old Ones, and the city of R'lyeh would appear to be Lovecraft's way of depicting the Apocalypse.

Confirmation of the above conclusions can be found by examining quotations from Lovecraft's manuscript, the implications of which, in light of what we have just said, will be self-explanatory. When the main character in "The Call of Cthulhu" manages to interview an actual member of the Cthulhu Cult to divine their beliefs, the descriptions that follow parallel precisely the tales of the Nephilim, the Titans, and the war in Heaven between God and Lucifer, as well as the fall of the Atlantean empire.

"They worshipped, so they said, the Great Old Ones, who lived ages before there were any men, and who came to the young world out of the sky. These old ones were gone now, inside the earth and under the sea; but their dead bodies had told their secrets to the first man, who formed a cult which had never died. This was that cult, and the prisoners said it had always existed and always would exist, hidden in the distant wastes and dark places all over the world until the time when the Great Priest Cthulhu, from his dark house in the mighty city of R'lyeh under the waters should rise and bring the Earth again under his sway. Some day he would call, when the stars were ready, and the secret cult would always be ready to liberate him.

Meanwhile, no more must be told. There was a secret which even torture could not extract. Mankind was not absolutely alone amongst the conscious things of the Earth, for shapes came out of the dark to visit the faithful few. But these were not the Great Old Ones. No man had ever seen the Old Ones. The carven symbol was great Cthulhu, but none might say whether or not the others were precisely like him. No one could read the old writing now, but things were told by word of mouth. The chanted ritual was not the secret - that was never spoken aloud, only whispered. The chant meant only this: 'In his house at R'lyeh, dead Cthulhu waits dreaming."

This clearly describes the secret Luciferian doctrine of the gods being transmitted to their offspring, "the first man", just as the serpent did for Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. They created a covenant with that man, and a cult of magick, of ritual and sacrifice, in order to preserve their infernal secrets, one of which is so secret that it could not be talked about, only whispered, as they've done in the rites of Freemasonry, Rosicrucianism, the Templars, the Greek and Egyptian mystery schools, the Sufis, the Assassins, and countless other secret occult orders, which Lovecraft was no doubt alluding to when he referred to the "cult which had never died... had always existed, and always would exist", preserving the teachings of the "Forgotten Father" until such time as he should rise again from the sea to once more rule the Earth. The connections to Leviathan and the rise of the Anti-Christ don't even need to be repeated. Lovecraft's description goes on:

"Old Castro remembered bits of hideous legend that pales the speculations of Theosophists and made man and the world seem recent and transient indeed. There had been eons when other things ruled on the Earth, and they had had great cities. Remains of them, he said the deathless Chinaman had told him, were still to be found as Cyclopean stones on islands in the Pacific. They all died vast epochs of time before man came, but there were arts which could revive them when the stars had come round again to the right positions in the cycle of eternity. They had indeed come themselves from the stars, and brought their images with them."

Lovecraft, like Enoch, and like ancient man himself, conceived of the ancient Atlantean gods or Nephilim as possessing supernatural power, and, like Enoch, says that this power comes from the stars, that these beings in fact had come from the stars themselves, and seemed to be metaphysically affected by the movement of the stars, being able to resurrect from the dead only when the stars were in a certain position.

Likewise, the Atlantean god-kings purposely associated themselves with the stars and the planets, taking on the personifications of planets and constellations, each of which had a particular "energy" or "plain of existence" associated with it. This energy could be further manipulated by the prayers and rituals of the cult members who are loyal tot he Great Old Ones, and wish to see their kingdom rise again, in much the same way that Masons, Rosicrucians and other occultists today perform rituals in hope of bringing about the "Great Work" called the "New World Order", a new Golden Age just like the one that covered the Antediluvian world when the Atlantean god-kings (whom they revere) ruled over the Earth directly. The Eye in the Pyramid on our dollar bill, which represents the New World Order, is clearly a symbol of this newly-risen kingdom of Atlantis, "watched over " (as in "the Watchers") by the All-Seeing Eye, which could just as easily be the eye of Dagon, or Leviathan, or Cthulhu. It even looks reptilian, like it belongs on the face of a dragon.

The rise of R'lyeh, the New World Order, the New Atlantis, the New Jerusalem, the Golden Age, and even the Apocalypse - these are all terms for the same resurrection of the ancient global kingdom of the gods. Such a resurrection is also described in Aleister Crowley's The Book of the Law when he writes about the coming "Age of Horus" and the return of the rule of the gods, as well as their offspring, the human "kings":

"Ye shall see them at rule, at victorious armies, at all the joy... love one another with burning hearts, on the low men trample in the fierce lust of your pride, in the day of your wrath... Trample down the Heathen; be upon them, O warrior, I will give you of their flesh to eat."

Now read the following passage from "The Call of Cthulhu" and compare:

"Then, whispered Castro, those first men formed the cult around small idols which the Great Old Ones showed them; idols brought in dim eras from dark stars. That cult would never die 'til the stars came right again, and the secret priests would take great Cthulhu from his tomb to revive His subjects and resume his rule of Earth. The time would be easy to know, for then mankind would have become as the Great Old Ones; free and wild and beyond good and evil, with laws and morals thrown aside and all men shouting and reveling in joy. Then the liberated Old Ones would teach them new ways to shout and kill and revel and enjoy themselves, and all the earth would flame with a holocaust of ecstasy and freedom. Meanwhile, the cult, by appropriate rites, must keep alive the memory of those ancient ways and shadow forth the prophecy of their return.

This age of the glorious rule of the Old Ones, and the land which they ruled over, is so similar to Atlantis, Thule, Lemuria, and all of the other mythical lost civilizations as to be blatantly obvious, and it is clear that it is the Biblical deluge that puts an end to their kingdom. We read:

"In the elder time chosen men had talked with the entombed Old Ones in dreams, but then something had happened. The great stone city R'lyeh, with its monoliths and sepulchers, had sunk beneath the waves; and the deep waters, full of the one primal mystery through which not even thought can pass, had cut off the spectral intercourse. But memory never died, and the high priests said that the city would rise again when the stars were right. Then came out of the Earth the black spirits of the earth, moldy and shadowy, and full of dim rumors picked up in caverns beneath forgotten sea-bottoms. But of them old Castro dared not speak much."

It is interesting that the ocean is said to be "full of the one primal mystery through which not even thought can pass", because to the priest-kings of Atlantis, and the cult that followed them, the element of water itself is revered seemingly because of this metaphysical power. If it truly acts as a barrier for psychic thought waves, then if the Earth was ever covered in a "Firmament" of water, as the Bible says it was, it would have performed the same function.

The climax of Lovecraft's story comes when the main character reads an account of his uncle's death in a fishing boat off the coast of Australia. They had come across a monolith sticking out of the ocean, which turned out to be resting on top of a mountain that was poking out of the water, upon which they landed their boat. There they discovered a strange sunken city built with "Cyclopean", non-Euclidean architecture. It was an earthquake that had brought the top of the city to the surface, where Cthulhu and the Great Old Ones were entombed. Their presence awakened Cthulhu, who oozed out of the mountain, dripping green slime, and presumably killed the whole crew.

Similar themes are touched upon in Lovecraft's other work. In "At the Mountains of Madness", he returns to the theme of discovering the lost city of the Old Ones, this time set in Antarctica, which, as the Nazis and many others believed, was the location of one of the largest entrances to the Hollow Earth. In this story, none of the continents had drifted apart yet, so all of the Earth's land was basically Antarctica. In "The Nameless City", he delves explicitly into the Hollow Earth, describing the discovery of a subterranean passage filled with the caskets of dead reptilian bodies, who had obviously, at one time, lived inside the Earth. And finally, in "Dagon", Lovecraft tells the tale of a shipwrecked man who finds himself stuck in a "slimy expanse of hellish black mire", which had been unearthed when "through some unprecedented volcanic upheaval, a portion of the ocean floor must have been thrown to the surface, exposing regions which for innumerable millions of years had lain hidden under unfathomable watery depths." This is clearly another reference to the recurring theme in Lovecraft's work of the sunken city of Atlantis rising from the ocean, which as we have established, is also a common theme in world mythology. One is reminded of the final scene in the box office hit, The Abyss. There also seems to be an allusion to the Hollow Earth and its black sun when Lovecraft writes, "The sun was blazing down from a sky which seemed to me almost black in its cloudless cruelty", and then later, when he described walking through this once sunken, newly arisen land, likening it to Hell. "Through my terror ran curious reminiscences of Paradise Lost", he writes, "and Satan's hideous climb through the unfashioned realms of Darkness." There he discovers a white monolith covered with hieroglyphs.

"The writing was in a system of heiroglyphics unknown to me, and unlike anything I had even seen in books, consisting for the most part of conventional aquatic symbols, such as fishes, eels, octopi, crustaceans, mollusks, whales, and the like. Several characters obviously represented marine things which are unknown to the modern world, but whose decomposing forms I had observed on the ocean-risen plain."

Clearly, then, what this character has discovered are the remains of a high civilization of sea-faring, ocean-obsessed people, which is exactly what Atlantis is described as being, and why their kings, or "gods" were depicted as half-man, half-fish. Lovecraft continues:

"Plainly visible across the intervening water on account of their enormous size was an array of bas-reliefs whose objects would have excited the envy of Doré. I think that these were supposed to depict men - at least, a certain sort of men; though the creatures were shown disporting like fishes in the waters of some marine grotto or paying homage at some monolithic shrine that appeared under the waves as well. They were damnably human in general outline, despite webbed hands and feet, shockingly wide and flabby lips, glossy, bulging eyes, and other features less pleasant to recall."

It is at this point that our narrator espies with his own eyes one of these creatures - not a bas-relief, but the real thing. "Vast, Polyphemus-like, and loathsome, it darted like a stupendous monster of nightmare to the monolith about which it flung its gigantic scaly arms, the while it bowed its hideous head and gave vent to certain measured sounds. It think I went mad then."

When the character awakes, he is in a hospital bed in San Francisco, safe and sound, but not of sound mind,. Disturbed by his memories, he consults "a celebrated ethnologist, and amused him with peculiar suggestions regarding the ancient Philistine legend of Dagon, the Fish-God." Clearly, the character believes that it was Dagon himself, or one of his horde, whom he witnessed that faithful night. And as we have previously established, Dagon, one of the kings of Atlantis, was the same as Poseidon, Kronos, Oannes, Enki, and therefore Satan. He was one of the Nephilim, Watchers, or Fallen Angels upon which Lovecraft's "Great Old Ones" are based. And of course, in keeping with the theme, the character in this story believes that they will one day return to once more hold dominion over the Earth.

"I dream of a day when they may rise above the bellows to drag down, in their reeking talons, the remnants of puny, war-exhausted mankind - of a day when the land shall sink, and the dark ocean floor shall ascend amidst universal pandemonium."

The themes alluded to in Lovecraft's work were taken to their utmost logical conclusion by the authors and editors of The Necronomicon, based on the imaginary grimoire that Lovecraft wrote of repeatedly in connection to Cthulhu and the Old Ones, a book of black magic with spells aimed at causing the sunken city of R'lyeh to rise again, and the "dead but dreaming" Old Ones to awaken from their slumber. The Necronomicon, published by Avon books, purports to be that very grimoire, "the most dangerous Black Book known to the Western World." Although from reading it and the silly portentous warnings that fill the introduction (attempting to scare away the casual practitioner from meddling with forces so dangerous) it is hard to believe that this is, verbatim, an ancient text, it does appear to be based largely on genuine texts. As the Editor, L.K. Barnes explains:

"The Necronomicon is, according to Lovecraft's tales, a volume written in Damascus in the Eighth Century, A.D., by a person called the "Mad Arab", Abdul Alhazred. It must run roughly 800 pages in length, as there is a reference in one of the stories concerning some lacunae on a page in the 700's It had been copied and reprinted in various languages - the story goes - among them Latin, Greek and English. Doctor Dee, the Magus of Elizabethan fame, was supposed to have possessed a copy and translated it. This book, according to the mythos, contains the formulae for evoking incredible things into visible appearance, beings and monsters which dwell in the Abyss, and Outer Space, of the human psyche."

Those texts, as well as the system of gods, legends, and rituals presented in the book, are as old as civilization itself, having originated from the oldest civilization accepted by historians, one of the crowning empires of the God-Kings of Atlantis - ancient Sumeria.

There is a dualistic notion inserted into The Necronomicon that is completely absent in Lovecraft's work. Lovecraft's "Old Ones" were primordial beings, beyond good and evil. That was the essence of their power. In The Necronomicon , the "Great Old Ones" have been split into two factions: the "Elder Gods" and the "Ancient Ones" - the good guys and the bad guys. This is noted in the excellently-written introduction by the Editor, L.K. Barnes, which alone should be invaluable to the serious student of the occult, and Sumerian mythology. Writes Barnes:

"Basically there are two 'sets' of gods in the mythos: the Elder Gods, about whom not much is written, save that they are a stellar race that occasionally comes to the rescue of man, and which corresponds to the Christian 'light'; and the Ancient Ones, about whom much is told, sometimes in great detail, who correspond to Darkness. These latter are the Evil Gods who wish nothing but ill for the Race of Man, and who constantly strive to break into our world through a gate or door that leads from the Outside In. There are certain people among us, who are devotees of the Ancient Ones, and who try to open the Gate, so that this evidently repulsive organization may once again rule the Earth. Chief among this is Cthulhu, typified as a Sea Monster, dwelling in the Great Deep, a sort of primeval Ocean..."

This author has herself tried to figure out what the essential difference is between the Ancient Ones and the Elder Gods. The Elder Gods are lead by a great trinity: Anu, Enlil and Enki, whom we have talked about in other Dagobert's Revenge articles as being the ancient god-kings of Sumeria, and perhaps, Atlantis. Anu held the seat of kingship, the inheritance of which was disputed by his sons, Enki and Enlil, leading to a catastrophe that destroyed most of Earth's civilizations and which is recorded in the Sumerian Enuma Elish, as well as the Biblical "War in Heaven." In the Sumerian texts, there is a race of gods descended from this trinity called the "Annunaki", analogous to the "sons of god", or the Nephilim in the Bible and the Book of Enoch. In The Necronomicon the strife between Enki and Enlil is completely ignored, and the Annunaki are considered to be a separate race, a faction of the Ancient Ones. They live in the Absu, or Abyss, a.k.a. "Nar Mattaru", the great Underworld Ocean, which is also called "Cutha" or "Kutu." This place is also described as "the Sea beneath the Seas", and clearly indicates an ocean inside the Earth which coincides with descriptions of the Hollow Earth being largely filled with water. "Nar Mattaru" is very similar to "Nar Mar", one of the kings of the global empire of Atlantis, Sumeria, Egypt and India, whose name meant "Wild Bull", but who was symbolized by a cuneiform character depicting a cuttlefish. Since "Mar" means sea, it's not difficult to figure out that this king is he upon whom Enki, Dagon , Oannes, and all the other "Sea Bulls", including the Quinotaur that spawned the Merovingians, have been based. But Leviathan is also based on this character, who in turn is the same as Cthulhu, the Ancient One. Are we confused yet?

The Elder Gods seem most definitely to be associated with the planets. In the chapter entitled "Of the Zonei and Their Attributes" ("Zonei" referring to the "zones" or orbits in which the planets travel), we learn that beneath Enki, Enlil and Anu are seven planetary deities. It appears that it is not the planets themselves that were worshipped, but the gods that represent those planets. As we have previously discussed, the ancient god-kings of Atlantis associated themselves with the stars and the planets, taking on their attributes that these planets were supposed to represent. Interestingly, it is written of Nergal, the god of Mars, that: "He was sometimes thought to be an agent of the Ancient Ones, for he dwelt in Cutha for a time." Clearly, whether a god is considered "Ancient" or "Elder" depends less on moral or physical attributes than it does on where spatially the "god" is believed to be located. Ancient man believed that the Underworld was the land to the west, because that is where the sun went to "die" every night. So if there was a time when Mars rose in West, that would explain this association between that planet and "Cutha."

The Ancient Ones, for their part, seem to be associated both with the Abyss, or underground sea, and with the constellations as well. This is not a contradiction if one takes into account the fact that ancient man considered the sky itself to be a cosmic ocean, and it was often called "The Abyss" as well. There seem to be three star systems in particular that the Ancient Ones are associated with, which have given birth to what Abdul Alhazred describes as: "The Cult of the Dog, the Cult of the Dragon, and the Cult of the Goat" (these are all cults that would be perceived as pagan or "Satanic" today), corresponding to the stars Draconis (the Dragon), Sirius (the Dog-Star), and Capricorn, (the Goat), which is oddly based on Enki, the prototype of Satan, whom Abdul is calling an "Elder God." Abdul explains that:

"There shall forever be a war between us and the race of Draconis, for the race of Draconis was ever-powerful in ancient times, when the first temples were built in Magan, and they drew down their power from the stars..."

Many would interpret this to means that the Ancient Ones, "The Race of Draconis", are a lizard race of extraterrestrials from Draco, like the concepts promoted by David Icke. These beings are uncaring and unfeeling, yet the cause of all pain on this Earth, and they can be known by "their many unnatural sciences and arts, which cause wondrous things to happen, but which are unlawful to our people."

Here again we comes across the roots of the ancient yet nonetheless false dichotomy between good and evil. The Ancient Ones are reviled for teaching man secret wisdom, arts and sciences that are "unnatural", because they enable man to conquer nature, just as the Watchers of Nephilim did in the Book of Enoch. In that text, the forbidden knowledge consists of math, writing, astronomy, and the like. Here it seems to be associated mostly with the forbidden arts of ritual magick, which, if performed by the Elder Gods would be perfectly OK, but which "are unlawful to our people."

And who exactly are "our people" in this schematism? The human race in general? Or something more specific? In "The Testimony of the Mad Arab", Abdul Alhazred writes of his first encounter with the worshippers of the Ancient Ones, who were performing a sacrificial ritual around a large, floating, gray rock, upon which was carved three symbols. Of the first, the pentagram, he writes, "The first is the Sign of Our Race from beyond the Stars, and is called Arra in the tongue of the Scribe who taught it to me, an emissary of the Elder Ones. In the tongue of the eldest city of Babylon, it was Ur." The pentagram was indeed called the "Ar", or "Plough Sign" by the ancient Sumerians, and some have speculated that this is where the word "Aryan" comes from. The gods of Ancient Sumeria were depicted with blue eyes, and their language is clearly the root of our "Indo-European", or Aryan system of languages. Is it so much to assume that the Sumerians were in fact themselves "Sum-Aryans"? This would seem to confirm it. Even L.K. Barnes makes note of the "strange, non-Semitic language of the Sumerians; and language which has been closely allied to that of the Aryan race, having in fact many words identical to that of Sanskrit (and, it is said, to Chinese!)"

But the blood of the Aryans has a special quality to it, for it possesses the co-mingled powers of both the Ancient Ones and the Elder Gods. As L.K. Barnes writes: "Man was created from the blood of the slain commander of the Ancient Army, Kingu, thereby making man a descendant of the Blood of the Enemy, as well as the 'breath' of the Elder Gods; a close parallel to the 'Sons of God and the daughters of men' reference in the Old Testament." Indeed it is a close parallel for these Sumerian legends of the War in Heaven are the source of this later Biblical tale. A trace of these ancient versions can be found in what L.K. Barnes refers to as the "center piece" of The Necronomicon: "The Magan Text."

The Magan Text tells the story of the creation of our present Earth, and of humanity himself. It starts out much like Genesis - the emergence of creation out of the formless void of chaos referred to as "The Waters" in both texts. From the Magan we read:

"When on High the Heavens had not been named,
The Earth had not been named,
And Naught existed but the Seas of Absu,
The Ancient One,
And Mummu Tiamat, the Ancient One
Who bore them all,
Their Waters as One Water."

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